Laboratory tasks

During the project we expect to conduct comprehensive research, including:

- solution of the theoretical problems of nonlinear interaction of waves in the magnetosphere;
- mathematical simulation of the energy transfer to the ionospheric heights both from the magnetosphere during geomagnetic disturbances, and from the underlying neutral atmosphere;
- development of techniques for solving inverse problems of radiosounding, magnetometric and optical observations;
- development of methods and implementation of algorithms for the compensation of ionospheric disturbances caused by the magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions and impacts on the ionosphere by the underlying neutral atmosphere, to the accuracy of characteristics of radiotechnical systems in the Arctic region;
- development of techniques and software-hardware systems that implement modern technologies for diagnostics of state and dynamics of the atmosphere at altitudes from 60 to 2000 km by terrestrial instruments and by receivers of signals from high- and low-orbital navigation satellites .

Due to the heightened geopolitical situation around the Arctic region, including the issue of extraction of natural resources, the tasks of creating high-performance systems for control, warning and communication, as well as for ensuring the safety of the country, that takes into account in their work crucial effects of space weather, come to the fore in a view of national economic activity. Relevance of the project is conditioned by, on the one hand, the fundamental study of Near-Earth Space as a single dynamic system, and, on the other hand, by the need to solve applied problems of radio, radar, navigation, since disturbances in the atmosphere-ionosphere- magnetosphere system exert a significant influence on the characteristics of propagating radio signals.

Modern radio systems require taking into account subtle features of the radio propagation environment, including small-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances ( TIDs ). Relevance of the planned research is proved by the continuously increasing attention in the international science to the magnetosphere-ionosphere-atmospheric interactions. In 2006-2013 , these studies were performed in accordance with the programs of study of climate and weather of the Earth-Sun system (CAWSES and CAWSES II), organized by the Scientific Committee on Solar- Terrestrial Physics (SCOSTEP). During the period 2014-2018 a new research program VarSITI (Variability of the Sun and its influence on the Earth) will run. VarSITI program will focus on international cooperation in the field of data analysis, modeling and theoretical studies to understand how solar variability affects the near-Earth space and climate. Thus, in one of the five basic projects VarSITY - SPeCIMEN project (Specification and forecast intermagnetospheric environment) - the problems of complex interaction of waves and particles in the plasma of the magnetosphere, ionosphere and plasmasphere are in the center of the planned research. Strategic Plan for the U.S. National Space Weather Program for 2010-2020 [NSWP Strategic plan, 2010], justifies the need for the creation of regional networks of high-speed synchronous tools able to provide consumers with data important for them as soon as possible. Such networks can include: American segment of SuperDARN network - HokieDARN, Сanadian CHAIN network, regional networks of GPS receivers, Japanese satellite system for ultra-precise navigation in the Asia-Pacific region QZSS planned in 2017, etc.

Large extent of the territory of the Russian Federation and the extremely poor network of observation tools in the Arctic region can not be compensated by foreign satellite groups (NOAA, DMSP , etc.) , as they provide realtime information in a small neighborhood of their trajectory. In modern information systems only the data from radio occultation experiments COSMIC allow us to determine global ionospheric dynamics. Attracting terrestrial instruments of realtime monitoring will greatly enhance the spatial and temporal resolution of the Near-Earth Space characteristics, the diagnostics of space weather disturbances that have a decisive influence on the performance and efficiency of the vital technology systems of energetics, navigation and communication with regional centers, ships and aircrafts, including the provision of cross-polar routes.

Scientific novelty of the project is to generate new knowledge about the characteristics of wave processes between the magnetosphere, ionosphere and atmosphere in the high-latitude regions. The scientific bases for diagnostic and short-term forecasting of explosive processes in high-latitude ionosphere will be developed. Scientific effectiveness of the project is caused by the integrated approach from the theoretical developments to creating methods for compensating harmful effects. For the first time in the domestic practice, a wide range of observational instruments will be used, including following measurements in the Arctic region: magnetic fluctuations in a wide range of frequencies; the optical oscillations , reflecting the dynamics of particle precipitation; variations of riometer absorption; simultaneous measurements of parameters of ionospheric irregularities of various scales using a network of radio physical instruments covering the Asian region of Russia. To improve the accuracy and reliability of diagnosis of inhomogeneous polar atmosphere using dual frequency global navigational satellite system (GNSS) measurements, for the first time there will be eliminated not only the error of the first order, but the error of the second order, caused by the dependence of the refractive index of the ionospheric plasma from the geomagnetic field.

To investigate the possibility of eliminating errors of the third order in the GNSS measurements due to the curvature of the trajectory of irregularities in the polar ionosphere, the first time will be used a special spatial processing GNSS signal. This processing takes into account the inhomogeneties smaller than the Fresnel radius, i.e. of order or less than 100 m.

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